In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (eg, hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis. Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis are both processes by which organisms produce food photosynthesis is powered by sunlight while chemosynthesis runs on chemical energy close up of a tubeworm “bush,” which mines for sulfide in the carbonate substrate with their roots.
Many chemosynthetic organisms can be found by hydrothermal vents, or where methane can be found within the earth in hydrogen sulfide chemosynthesis, carbon dioxide plus oxygen plus hydrogen.
Organisms living in regions where sunlight is not available produce their energy by the process of chemosynthesis during chemosynthesis, bacteria use the energy derived from the chemical oxidation of inorganic compounds to produce organic molecules and water. Chemosynthesis is a process certain organisms use to obtain energy for the production of food, akin to photosynthesis, but without the use of sunlight the energy comes from the oxidization of inorganic chemicals that the organisms find in their environment. Chemosynthesis can occur in the presences of oxygen, but it is not required example of chemosynthesis in addition to bacterial and archaea, some larger organisms rely on chemosynthesis.
Chemosynthesis is the oldest way for organisms to produce food in the oceans or hot lakes, chemosynthetic bacteria constitute the basis of an ecosystem, where bacteria live in the mud of the ocean floor or inside larger animals, such as snails or limpets. All of these organisms that are dependent on chemosynthesis benefit from the seepage of hydrothermal fluid through active mineral structures, and from the thermal and chemical gradients across mineral structures the structures provide an interface between seawater and hydrothermal fluid that maintains tolerable temperatures for biota, and allows organisms simultaneous access to the chemical constituents in both seawater and hydrothermal fluid. In addition to bacterial and archaea, some larger organisms rely on chemosynthesis a good example is the giant tube worm which is found in great numbers surrounding deep hydrothermal vents each worm houses chemosynthetic bacteria in an organ called a trophosome.
Chemosynthesis is the process by which certain microbes create energy by mediating chemical reactions so the animals that live around hydrothermal vents make their living from the chemicals coming out of the seafloor in the vent fluids.
Chemosynthesis is at the heart of deep-sea communities, sustaining life in absolute darkness, where sunlight does not penetrate all chemosynthetic organisms use the energy released by chemical reactions to make a sugar, but different species use different pathways.